The right conditions for a stable crown structure must always be created right away. The growth phase lasts about six to eight years. Compared to earlier use, the crown is now usually formed from three conductive branches. These must be carefully selected from the existing branches. It is ideal if the leading branches are arranged evenly around the trunk like a mercedes star.
For better stability of the tree, however, they should not come out of a whorl, as was once the case, but should be staggered along the trunk. First, when cutting, the branches are formed at an angle of 45 degrees. This is done either by tying them up with a loop if they are too flat or by spreading them with an elder branch if the angle is too steep.
When sharply pruning the branches, make sure that they are at the same height. The end buds should always be pointing upwards. Finally, the stem elongation is at scissor length above the "sap level" a short. The ideal is a roof slope of 45 degrees on both sides. The correct inclination can be checked by placing your thumbs horizontally to each other. The outstretched fingers above indicate the optimal angle when touching each other. This "mab is also to be observed with older trees, so that the trunk does not grow so strongly upwards.
When pruning trees, special care should be taken to have a crown that is clear to the top so that the leader branches are not obscured by overgrowth. An old gardener’s rule says that you can throw a hat through the top of the tree without it touching a branch. Therefore all inward growing and too steeply standing branches must be removed.
For a better understanding, it is necessary to know that a tree is formed by directing the most force to the buds that are furthest up. Therefore, especially in young years, it has the tendency to "overbuild" in the upper area. Also, a tree grows crooked when one leader branch is higher than the other. If the shoots are too steep, they grow very vigorously.
The more they bend later, the less growth there is. Then such shoots set fruit. This process can be accelerated by tying down young upright shoots to an almost horizontal position. The older these branches then become, the more they lean downwards and become increasingly senescent. Old wood then produces only small fruits and can not bear all the years.
That is why old trees are pruned very differently from young ones. It is necessary to continuously remove the senescent fruit branches and place them on a young shoot. This gives a constant rejuvenation. This process is called the "rotation of the fruiting wood" in technical language. But if all young shoots are cut off, as is often done with old trees, there is no rejuvenation. Then such specimens look like "weeping willows", on the surface of which sprout innumerable young shoots. If you know the laws of tree growth, it is no longer difficult to prune a fruit tree correctly.
The guide bars are built up in the next years again and again a stage further. This is done by cutting the tips of the shoots at the same height, the so-called "sap scale". Then at the interface new branches are formed. In addition, the conductive branches are strengthened by the cut. But a senseless pruning of all the young shoots is terrible.
Then, especially in the case of strongly growing tree forms, the shoots grow too coarsely. The gartner produces itself thus very much unnoticeable wood. To cut this then again and again costs a lot of working time. Only in the case of weakly growing spindles can additional cutting of a few young shoots be useful in order to achieve more growth here. Strongly growing and sensitive trees such as sub-cherry and walnut trees are only formed anyway and the shoots are not cut in the process. This is best done in summer.